As a result, increasing numbers of enslaved Africans were brought over to work Maryland's tobacco plantations. Before settlement began, George Calvert died and was succeeded by h… "Introduction to Colonial African American Life." European settlement dramatically changed this area for its American Indian population. Historic St. Mary's City. National Park Service. For the next several years, the Puritans struggled with Stone for political power. It's global address is: latitude 39 degrees north, longitude 77 degrees west. American Indian Cultural Center. Accessed 6/6/19. In the colony it was important for members of different social classes to work together to make the colony … Although Claiborne kept up the struggle to retain Kent Island for many yearsâright up to his deathâit eventually became part of Maryland. As the proprietors of the colony, they could grant titles and lands with manorial rights. In that year, John Coode, a sheriff from Charles County, and a group of Protestant rebels overthrew the proprietary government of the Calverts. "William Claiborne." To ensure political support for the charter in England, Cecil remained behind, naming his brother, Leonard, to lead the expedition and serve as the colony's first governor. "Slavery Comes to Early Maryland: A Brief Look," by David Taft Terry. Accessed 6/6/19. Marylanders took an active part in the American Revolution. Accessed 6/6/19. United States Genealogical Network. Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels. Three distinct regions characterize Maryland's topography. As a way to raise money to pay off England's war debtsâand to pay for administering its coloniesâthe English government passed a series of acts in the 1760s and 1770s, such as the Sugar Act (1764), the Stamp Act (1765), and the Tea Act (1773). "Henry VIII." Independence Hall Association. Accessed 6/6/19. With peace, Maryland and the rest of the country concentrated on making improvements in transport and communication. "Cecil (Cecilius) Calvert, Second Lord Baltimore." He repeats the false claim that Maryland's colonial legislators in 1649 did away with the concept of religious thought-crime. Accessed 6/6/19. Advisory Council on Historic Preservation. Geography of the region and its impact Mild winters, hot/humid summer, swampy marshes, mosquitos caused more diseases like malaria and reduced colonists' life spans. In 1861 federal troops occupied Baltimore and Annapolis, and martial law was imposed in this border state. For the next 50 years or so, religion continued to divide colonial Marylanders. "Welcome to St. Mary's County." British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). A 1689 rebellion by Protestants overthrew the proprietary officers, leading to an interval of crown rule in the royal colony of Maryland (1692â1715). "The French and India War," by John T. Marck. Accessed 6/6/19. Chesapeake Bay Program. Maryland State Archives. In 1632 Cecilius Calvert was granted a charter for the land as a haven in which his fellow Roman Catholics might escape the restrictions placed on them in England. The Chesapeake Bay divides Maryland into two sections -the Eastern Shore and the Western Shore. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. Roads and towns were few, and contact with the English-model manor houses was largely by water. Southern Colonies Colonies - Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia Climate/Geography – The Southern Colonies enjoyed warm climate with hot summers and mild winters. One free African-American who lived most of his life on his family farm in Baltimore County was Benjamin Banneker, born in 1731. Accessed 6/6/19. It granted freedom of worship, though only within the bounds of Trinitarian Christianity. The Chesapeake Bay area is thought to have been first explored by Europeans in the early 1500s. "Fort Frederick State Park." Accessed 6/6/19. Accessed 6/6/19. Tobacco had become the main cash crop of early colonial Virginia and Maryland. "The Glorious Revolution," by Dr. Edward Vallance. Then they stopped for supplies in the West Indies before reaching Chesapeake Bay in early March 1634. At stake was the proprietary system of the Calverts. Back in 1631, William Claiborne of Virginia had created an independent trading station on Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay. Aware of the mistakes made by Virginiaâs first colonists, Marylandâs settlers, rather than hunt for gold, made peace with the local Native Americans and established farms and trading posts, at first on the shores and islands of the lower Chesapeake. Maryland was also one of the key destinations where the government sent tens of thousands of English convicts punished by sentences of transportation. William and Mary then placed Maryland under royal control, which lasted until 1715. From 1763 to 1767, Mason and Dixon trekked along a mostly wilderness area, surveying and setting stone markers (at set intervals, markers had an "M" or the Calvert coat-of-arms on the south-facing sides and a "P" or the Penn coat-of-arms on their north-facing sides). In fact, Virginia and Maryland's economies were so dependent on tobacco, more than half of all slaves lived in these two colonies in the mid- to late 1700s. The constitution of 1864 abolished slavery and removed power from the rural aristocracy. They are the Western Region, Capital Region, Central Region, Southern Region and the Eastern Shore Region. On March 25, 1634, the settlers rowed ashore to a small island, which they named St. Clement's, located in the mouth of the Potomac River (part of the Chesapeake Bay water basin). The Calvert family provided for religious freedom in the colony, and this was formalized by the General Assembly in 1649 in an Act Concerning Religion, later famous as the Act of Religious Toleration. Accessed 6/6/19. The first people to settle in what is now Maryland arrived more than 10,000 years ago. "The Almanac of American History," ed. As the number of indentured servants willing to come over to Maryland decreased, Maryland's economy grew dependent on slave labor. Accessed 6/6/19. Samuel Chase and William Paca, two of Maryland's four signers of the declaration of Independence, also led protests against the Stamp Act. "Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore of Baltimore." In 1845 the U.S. Accessed 6/6/19. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography, culture, and history combine elements of the Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern, and South Atlantic regions of the country. Historic St. Mary's City. In time, American Indians in this area began staying in villages for most of the year or even year-round. Although Maryland was returned to its proprietary statusâthe fourth Lord Baltimore, Benedict Calvert, was a Protestantâthe assembly disenfranchised Maryland's Catholics in 1718. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. by Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. Accessed 6/6/19. Although the Boston Tea Party may be the American colonies' most famous protest against the Tea Act, Maryland held two of its own tea parties in 1774. "John Carroll." He was the first governor of the colonial Maryland. Accessed 6/6/19. Leonard Calvert is the other son out of the thirteen children from George Calvert's marriage. In March 1655, Stone and a force of about 100 soldiers made an unsuccessful attempt to recapture the government in the Battle of the Severn. Calvert and his heirs were to be absolute Lords and Proprietors. Accessed 6/6/19. Although England had overruled attempts by Virginia to prevent the Maryland colony from being established, Lord Baltimore soon encountered more trouble with the Virginians as Maryland became settled. Western Maryland Railway Station (1913), Cumberland, Md., part of the state's Canal Place Heritage Area. Whether by disease, tribal conflict, or colonial expansion, there is no further record of the Yoacomaco tribe after the late 1600s. The Maryland Colony The Maryland Colony was one of the original 13 colonies located on the Atlantic coast of North America. Although her request was denied, Brent is often considered the first suffragette of America. Library of Congress. As a result, armed conflict broke out in 1635 between Baltimore's and Claiborne's forces. Independence Hall Association. Accessed 6/6/19. Maryland's first settlers avoided the mistakes of Virginia's first settlers, focusing on farming and trading instead of seeking gold. Independence Hall Association. U.S. National Archives. "The Colonial Kids' Guide to St. Mary's City." Marylandâs controversy with Virginia over the use of the Potomac and lower Chesapeake Bay, resulting in the Compact of 1785, led toward the Constitutional Convention (1787), as did the Annapolis Convention of 1786, at which Maryland was not represented. Regarding taxation and legislation, however, the proprietors could only collect taxes and enact laws subject to the consent of the freemen of the colony. For Type of Economy, consider the region the colony is a part of (New England, Midd le, or Southern), and list the primary ways that money was earned for that colony. "Benjamin Banneker Historical Park and Museum." Accessed 6/6/19. Nanticoke Indian Association, Inc. Accessed 6/6/19. "Gov. Accessed 6/6/19. "Captain Henry Fleet." It was originally intended by its proprietors, George Calvertâthe first Lord Baltimoreâand his son Cecilius (Cecil)âthe second Lord Baltimoreâto be a refuge for English Catholics and a source of family prosperity. Chase served as a justice of the United States Supreme Court. The following year, the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, long under construction across the northern part of the Delmarva Peninsula, was completed. Library of Congress. The Piedmont Plateau, west of the coastal lowlands, is broad, rolling upland with several deep gorges cut by rivers. He's considered the first free African-American to live in Maryland, earning his freedom in 1638. Landed gentry and residents of the Eastern Shore supported the secessionist South, while workingmen and western Marylanders stood up for the Union; a third faction favoured neutrality. Maryland Public Television. For a time in late 1776 and early 1777, the Declaration of Independence was kept in Baltimore for safekeeping. John Smith sailed into Chesapeake Bay and stayed for several weeks to map the shoreline. The Church of England was made the official church of Maryland, replacing the 1649 Toleration Act. Carroll was the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence, and he was the last surviving signer upon his death in 1832. "An Act Concerning Religion, April 21, 1649," by Edward C. Papenfuse, Jr. Accessed 6/6/19. In 1657 Lord Baltimore was reinstated as proprietor. "Mathematician and Astronomer Benjamin Banneker Was Born November 9, 1731." It was an early attempt to ensure that the state and church were kept separate. Margaret's decisive actions in resolving Leonard's affairs, especially in paying off Calvert's soldiers who were near mutiny, helped ensure that the settlement would survive these trying times. The Royal Household. "Maryland History Timeline." From his deathbed, Governor Calvert had appointed Margaret Brent as the executor of his estate. Read a biography of Leonard Calvert, first Governor of Maryland. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. Banneker became a self-taught scientist and published a very popular series of almanacs, for which he calculated the tides, sunrises, and sunsets, and correctly predicted an eclipse. "Maryland Act Concerning Religion." Accessed 6/6/19. Finally after years of failed negotiations, the matter was settled by an English court, which instructed two British astronomers and surveyors, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, to establish the border. The first settlement and capital was St. Marys City. Cross Sections of the State. Visit Baltimore. By 1650, due to war, disease, and migration, less than 3,000 American Indians remained in the Bay area. The Cumberland Road, or National Road, the first road to cross the Appalachians, was completed to Wheeling, Va. (later W.Va.), in 1818. Marylanders were taxed to support this church. He was born in 1606 and died in 1647. Postwar problems included the disposition of confiscated loyalist property, the struggle for paper money, and debtor relief. "The Province of Maryland." Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 6/6/19. "Cumberland, Maryland." In addition, controversy arose over his Roman Catholic practices. De Sousa then became a fur trader and sailor. Lord Baltimore hoped to have enacted into Maryland law the religious toleration that the colony had practiced since its beginning. Catholic Encyclopedia. "Charles Carroll of Carrollton." For much of the 1500s and 1600s, and even into the 1800s, English Catholics faced persecution and worshipped underground. Catholic Encyclopedia. Yale University, Avalon Project. For those men who brought over fewer than five men, they would receive 100 acres plus another 100 for each man. "Maryland at a Glance: Holidays: Maryland Day." Brompton Books. It also ceded territory and advanced money for public buildings to help form the District of Columbia (1791). Accessed 6/6/19. "Thomas Stone." Maryland State Archives. "African American History and Culture." "Daniel Dulany." Maryland nonetheless remained a haven for dissidents from sectarian rigidity in other colonies. Colony Paca served three terms as Maryland's governor and as a federal district judge. The territory was named Maryland in honor of Henrietta Maria, the queen consort of Charles I. Accessed 6/6/19. Maryland State Archives. During the Revolutionary War, Baltimore served as a major supply center. The Toleration Act is considered an important milestone in colonial American history. Discover how the socioeconomic and political divisions that contributed to the American Civil War played out in Maryland. U.S. National Archives. Maryland the Seventh State. Accessed 6/6/19. Prince George's County Historical Society. When Calvert announced that he had converted to Catholicism in 1625, he had to give up his political position. At the time, this appointment of a woman executor was unusual. "County History." Maryland's 1632 charter made the Calverts feudal lords and proprietors, with possession and control of the colony's wealth, profits, land, and much of its governance. But Margaret Brent was an exceptional woman of these times. They also hoped to gain wealth from its development. Until England's Glorious Revolution of 1688, which brought the Protestants William and Mary to the throne, proprietary authority remained mostly unchallenged in Maryland. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. Their thanksgiving is now celebrated as Maryland Day, a state holiday. Accessed 6/6/19. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Maryland ratified the U.S. Constitution on April 28, 1788, the seventh state to do so. Accessed 6/6/19. Converted from Henry William Elson's. Accessed 6/6/19. A small tribe located along the St. Mary's River in southern Maryland, the Yoacomaco maintained sovereignty while conducting trade with the Piscataway, the Powhatan Confederacy of Virginia, and European settlers. Seeking land with a warmer climate where Catholics could worship freely, George Calvert requested a grant for a tract of land near Virginia along northern Chesapeake Bay (present-day Maryland and Delaware) in 1629. Accessed 6/6/19. Marylandâs dominant âcountry partyâ early resisted British efforts to make the colonies bear more of the costs of government. In keeping with his father's wishes to promote religious toleration and help ensure the colony's financial success, Cecil invited both Catholics and Protestants to settle Maryland. In 1645, Richard Ingle, a Protestant sea captain, led a rebellion against Governor Leonard Calvert to protect Maryland's Protestants. On November 22, 1633, the settlers, aboard Cecil's two ships, the Ark and the Dove, left Cowes on the Isle of Wight, England, for the Maryland colony. During this war, Fort Cumberland served as George Washington's headquarters for a time and as an important British staging and supply point. By then, most of the American Indians in the colony had been pushed out, killed in various conflicts, or died from diseases, such as smallpox. "George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore." Library of Congress. Confederate armies mounted three major invasions of Maryland territory in successive summers; they were checked at Antietam, they met full defeat at Gettysburg, Pa., and their threat to Washington, D.C., was dissipated in 1864. This latter aspect of Maryland's charter is another example of democracy gaining an early toehold in colonial America. Map of Marylands Regions. "A Declaration of The Lord Baltemore's Plantation in. DID YOU KNOW?Calvert left the title of the grant blank on the charter when he gave it to the king to sign. Accessed 6/6/19. "The Maryland History and Culture Bibliography." That same year, England's King Charles I was beheaded, and Lord Baltimore sent the Maryland Assembly a bill for religious toleration known as the "Maryland Act Concerning Religion," often called the "Act of Toleration," but perhaps best known as "The Toleration Act." Dulany wrote a popular pamphlet at the time, arguing for no taxation by England without colonial representation. Commercial disputes with Anglican Virginia and boundary quarrels with Quaker Pennsylvania and Delaware did not affect this tolerance. The soil was good for farming and the climate was warm, including The Chesapeake Colonies were the Colony and Dominion of Virginia, later the Commonwealth of Virginia, and Province of Maryland, later Maryland, both The Middle colonies spanned the Mid-Atlantic region of America and were temperate in climate, with warm summers and cold winters. These land-owning settlers also paid a modest rent (called a quit rent) to the proprietor, Lord Baltimore. While Maryland indeed became a safe place for persecuted Catholics to settle, many Protestants and Puritans left other colonies to settle there, as well. The first and major area, falling within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, is nearly bisected by the Chesapeake Bay, dividing Maryland into the Eastern Shore and the Western Shore. Maryland Public Television. Accessed 6/6/19. When harassment on the high seas and other factors brought on the War of 1812, Baltimore clippers, sailing as privateers, dealt more than equal punishment to British ships. In 1789, Carroll was named the first bishop in the United States, and he was also a founder of Georgetown University. George Calvert's death prevented him from seeing the charter that was issued on June 20, 1632. As if these deeds weren't notable enough, Brent is perhaps best known for her appearance before the Maryland Assembly. "William Paca." Accessed 6/6/19. Enoch Pratt Free Library. Accessed 6/6/19. The state of Maryland is on the east coast of the United States. Maryland’s share of the Appalachian Mountains comprises a series of forested barriers, with many of the intervening valleys still uncleared. Lonang Institute. In the early 1640s, de Sousa was elected to and voted as a member of the Maryland Assembly. Prince George's County Historical Society. Fort Frederick also served as a supply center and was a unique frontier fort for its time, built with stone walls instead of the more typical wood and earth. Claiborne seized Kent Island, while Ingle captured St. Mary's, forcing Governor Calvert to seek refuge in Virginia. Accessed 6/6/19. "What's in a Name? Why Should We Remember? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1632 - The royal charter for the colony of Maryland is granted to George Calvert. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. Nicknamed “America in Miniature,” Maryland encompasses a vast array of natural features in its 9,774 square miles. "Mathias de Sousa." Maryland continued to grow during the 1700s. One of the many notable first settlers of Maryland was Mathias de Sousa, who came over on the Ark as an indentured servant to Father Andrew White, a Catholic priest. Accessed 6/6/19. It is made up of sections of Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware. The dominant religion in early Maryland was Protestantism, with a minority group of Catholics who fled to the colony to escape religious persecution. The colony was established by Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (also known as Lord Baltimore), who also governed the Colony of Newfoundland and the Province of Avalon. Accessed 6/6/19. The region has lowland and some marshes. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Some estimates suggest that less than 150 of the Piscataway population survived in Maryland by 1700. Abraham Lincoln meeting with Gen. George B. McClellan, Oct. 3, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Md., following the Battle of Antietam. Accessed 6/6/19. They also sought to prevent him from obtaining a charter in any Virginian territory. "Thomas Stone." Sailing to Virginia without a charter, the Virginians refused to allow him to settle there because of his Catholicism. Maryland became torn by religious friction and political struggles between Catholics and Protestants. It was even used in place of money at times. "Was the Stamp Act Fair?" Finally, in 1692, Maryland became a royal colony with the Church of England as the established religion. They gave thanks and held what is considered to be the first Catholic Mass in the English colonies. However, the colony of Maryland was not chartered until 1632 or formally settled until 1634. Click the image to view an enlarged map of Maryland, 1634â1660. "Margaret Brent > Ingle's Rebellion." Among the most-reliable troops in the Continental Army, they were often given difficult tasks; Washington called them âThe Maryland Line.â The Continental Congress, often on the move to avoid British troops, spent a winter in Baltimore. The first was in May in Chestertown, where colonists raided a tea ship during the day without any disguises. Kent Island Heritage Society. Calvert started a small settlement of his own in Newfoundland, chartered under the name Avalon. To protest against another British tax, the ship Peggy Stewart with its cargo of tea was burned in the Annapolis harbor on Oct. 19, 1774. On January 21, 1648, Brent asked the assembly to grant her two votes: one for herself as a landowner and one as executor of Governor Calvert's estate. For example, in 1500, before European contact, the population of American Indians in the Chesapeake Bay area was thought to have been around 24,000 people. Celebrated as Maryland Day, a violent period in Maryland. near the Bay area is thought to enacted. Independence: the Signer 's Gallery. Richard Ingle, a violent period in Maryland. learn! Colony and founded the City of St. Marys 100 for his wife, and 50 for each child 16. Its beginning a federal district judge Grows. 77 degrees west had passed a law is allowing! Up his political position second was in maryland colony region in Annapolis, where the sent... Planning Washington, D.C., the struggle for paper money, and migration, less than American! 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